COUGH SUPPRESSANTS
METHAMPHETAMINES
COCAINE
MARIJUANA
HEROINE
ECSTASY
DRUG USE INDICATORS

DEA DETROIT WARNS PARENTS ABOUT THE POSSIBLE DEADLY EFFECTS OF COUGH SUPPRESSANT ABUSE

SEPT 17--Detroit, MI- The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Detroit Office is issuing a safety warning to parents, schools and local communities regarding a recent escalation in the abuse of dextromethorphan, the cough suppressant in over-the- counter cough and cold medications. Dextromethorphan abuse in the Detroit area has seen a disturbing increase recently with the Northeastern Wayne County area showing above average abuse. Isolated deaths and overdoses have been reported throughout the United States involving teens experimenting with dextromethophan or "DXM" as it is referred to by users.

Dextromethorphan abuse is often referred to as "Robo Tripping" since many teens consume excessive amounts of Robotussin cough medication to obtain the dextromethophan. The user population of DXM is generally teenagers and young adults. Teens typically purchase and consume these large quantities of over-the-counter cold medications to reach the desired effects. Effects from over ingestion include slurred speech, hyperexcitability, lethargy, sweating, hypertension and hallucinations.

Unfortunately, in addition to over-the-counter medications, some predatory distributors have sought to sell dextromethophan on the Internet. "Parents need to remember that ruthless and dangerous individuals try to entice our children with risky products on the Internet. We need to continually communicate and inform our kids of the dangers that lurk on something as innocent as the home computer," said Michael A. Braun, Special Agent in Charge of the DEA Detroit Field Division.

Parents can take steps to protect their children without jeopardizing their trust between each other.

Monitor their teens behavior for sudden and extreme changes in personality
Are their teens eating habits changing dramatically, especially if they are less interested in eating?
Are their kids excessively secretive about their computer use?
Are their children receiving unusual mail or mail without return addresses?
Are their children interested in obtaining private mailboxes without the need?
Teens are often under the mistaken impression that abusing substances such as dextromethorphan, inhalants and nitrous oxide as not as dangerous as traditional "street" drugs. This is a fallacy that law enforcement, parents and the media need to work hard to dispel. These myths can in fact be deadly.

For more information on dextromethorphan and DEA programs around the globe go to www.dea.gov






Methamphetamine

(Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, and their various salts are collectively referred to as amphetamines. In fact, their chemical properties and actions are so similar that even experienced users have difficulty knowing which drug they have taken. Methamphetamine is the most commonly abused.)

Street terms for methamphetamine: Meth, poor man's cocaine, crystal meth, ice, glass, speed1

What Does Methamphetamine Look Like?


Typically meth is a white powder that easily dissolves in water.
Another form of meth, in clear chunky crystals, called crystal meth, or ice.
Meth can also be in the form of small, brightly colored tablets. The pills are often called by their Thai name, yaba.
What are the methods of usage?

Injecting
Snorting
Smoking
Oral ingestion 2
Who uses methamphetamine and amphetamines?

During 2000, 4% of the U.S. population reported trying methamphetamine at least once in their lifetime.3
Abuse is concentrated in the western, southwestern, and midwestern United States.
How do methamphetamine and amphetamines get to the United States?

Clandestine laboratories in California and Mexico are the primary sources of supply for methamphetamine available in the United States.
Domestic labs that produce methamphetamine are dependent on supplies of the precursor chemical pseudoephedrine, which is sometimes diverted from legitimate sources. It is smuggled from Canada, and to a lesser extent from Mexico.
Domestic independent laboratory operators, mostly in the western, southwestern, and midwestern United States, also produce and distribute methamphetamine but on a smaller scale.
Yaba (meth in tablet form) is most often produced in Southeast Asia and sent by mail or courier to the United States.4
How much do methamphetamine and amphetamines cost?

Prices for methamphetamine vary throughout different regions of the United States.
At the distribution level, prices range from $3,500 per pound in parts of California and Texas to $21,000 per pound in southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Retail prices range from $400 to $3,000 per ounce.5
What are some consequences of methamphetamine and amphetamine use?

Effects of usage include addiction, psychotic behavior, and brain damage .6
Withdrawal symptoms include depression, anxiety, fatigue, paranoia, aggression, and intense cravings. 7
Chronic use can cause violent behavior, anxiety, confusion, insomnia, auditory hallucinations, mood disturbances, delusions, and paranoia. 8
Damage to the brain cause by meth usage is similar to Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and epilepsy.9

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1Office of National Drug Control Policy, Street Terms: Drugs and the Drug Trade.
2Drug Enforcement Administration,The Forms Of Methamphetamine, April 2002
3Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Summary of Findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, September 2001.
4Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Trafficking in the United States, September 2001.
5Ibid.
6Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Facts: Methamphetamine, May, 2002.
7Ibid.
8Ibid.
9National Institute on Drug Abuse, Methamphetamine: Abuse and Addiction, April, 1998. What are the Effects of Methamphetamine Abuse?






Cocaine

Street terms for cocaine: blow, nose candy, snowball, tornado, wicky stick1

What are the different forms of cocaine?

White crystalline powder
"Crack" or "rock" cocaine is an off-white chunky material.
How is cocaine used?

Powder cocaine is generally snorted or dissolved in water and injected.
Crack cocaine is usually smoked.2
Who uses cocaine?

Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug in the United States.
About 10 percent of Americans over the age of 12 have tried cocaine at least once in their lifetime, about 2 percent have tried crack, and nearly one percent is currently using cocaine.3
How does cocaine get to the United States?

The United States-Mexico border is the primary point of entry for cocaine shipments being smuggled into the United States.
Organized crime groups based in Colombia control the worldwide supply of cocaine.4
How much does cocaine cost?

Cocaine prices depend upon the purity of the product.
In 2001, cocaine purity declined by 8 percent, from 86 percent pure in 1998 to a 78 percent pure in 2001. The decrease in purity indicates a decrease in the supply of cocaine in the United States.5
Cocaine remained low and stable, which suggests a steady supply to the United States.
Nationwide, prices ranged from $12,000 to $35,000 per kilogram.6
What are some consequences of cocaine use?

Cocaine is powerfully addictive.7
Smoking crack can cause severe chest pains with lung trauma and bleeding.8
The mixing of cocaine and alcohol create cocaethylene while increasing risk of sudden death.9
Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest.10

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1Office of National Drug Control Policy, Street Terms: Drugs and the Drug Trade.
2National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Crack and Cocaine, October 2001.
3Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Summary of Findings from the
2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, September 2001.
4Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Trafficking in the United States, September 2001.
5Drug Enforcement Administration, STRIDE Report, August 2002.
6Office of National Drug Control Policy, Pulse Check: Trends in Drug Abuse, November 2001.
7Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Facts: Cocaine, May 2002.
8Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Descriptions: Cocaine.
9National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Crack and Cocaine, October 2001.
10Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Facts: Cocaine, May 2002.





Marijuana

Street terms for marijuana: grass, pot, weed, bud, Mary Jane, dope, indo, hydro1

What does marijuana look like?

A green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp plant. ("Cannabis" refers to marijuana and other drugs made from the same plant.)
Other forms, less common in the United States, are hashish and hashish oil.
What are the methods of usage?

Marijuana is usually smoked as a cigarette (called a joint) or in a pipe or bong.
What are some consequences of marijuana use?

May cause frequent respiratory infections, impaired memory and learning, increased heart rate, anxiety, panic attacks, tolerance, and physical dependence.2
Use of marijuana during the first month of breast-feeding can impair infant motor development.3
Chronic smokers may have many of the same respiratory problems as tobacco smokers including daily cough and phlegm, chronic bronchitis symptoms, frequent chest colds; chronic abuse can also lead to abnormal functioning of lung tissues.4
A study of college students has shown that skills related to attention, memory, and learning are impaired among people who use marijuana heavily, even after discontinuing its use for at least 24 hours.5
Who uses marijuana?

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug.
At least one-third of Americans have used marijuana sometime in their lives.6
How does marijuana get to the United States?

Marijuana produced in Mexico and smuggled into the U.S. remains the most widely available.
High-potency marijuana also enters the U.S. drug market from Canada.
U.S. drug law enforcement reporting suggests increased availability of domestically grown marijuana.7
The availability of marijuana from Southeast Asia generally is limited to the West Coast.
How much does marijuana cost?

Prices for commercial-grade marijuana have remained relatively stable over the past decade, ranging from approximately $400 to $1,000 per pound in U.S. Southwest border areas to between $700 to $2000 per pound in the Midwest and northeastern United States.
The national price range for sinsemilla, a higher quality marijuana usually grown domestically, is between $900 and $6,000 per pound.8

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1Office of National Drug Control Policy, Street Terms: Drugs and the Drug Trade.
2Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Descriptions: Marijuana, May 2002.
3National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marijuana Infofax, October 2001.
4Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Descriptions: Marijuana, May 2002.
5National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marijuana Infofax, October 2001.
6Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Summary of Findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, September 2001.
7Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Trafficking in the United States, September 2001.
8Ibid.



Heroin

Street terms for heroin: smack, thunder, hell dust, big H, nose drops1

What does heroin look like?

Pure heroin is a white powder with a bitter taste.
Most illicit heroin varies in color from white to dark brown.
"Black tar" heroin is sticky like roofing tar or hard like coal, and its color may vary from dark brown to black.
How is heroin used?

Injecting
Smoking
Snorting
Who uses heroin?

In the United States in 1999 there were 104,000 new heroin users.
In 2000, approximately 1.2% of the population reported heroin use at least once in their lifetime.2
How does heroin get to the United States?

The U.S. heroin market is supplied entirely from foreign sources of opium.
Production occurs in South America, Mexico, Southeast Asia, and Southwest Asia.3
How much does heroin cost?

Nationwide, in 2000, South American heroin ranged from $50,000 to $200,000 per kilogram. Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin ranged in price from $40,000 to $190,000 per kilogram. Wholesale-level prices for Mexican heroin were the lowest of any type, ranging from $13,200 to $175,000 per kilogram. The wide range in kilogram prices reflects variables such as buyer/seller relationships, quantities purchased, purchase frequencies, purity, and transportation costs.4
What are some consequences of heroin use?

One of the most significant effects of heroin use is addiction. Once tolerance happens, higher does become necessary to achieve the desired effect, and physical dependence develops.5
Chronic use may cause collapsed veins, infection of heart lining and valves, abscesses, liver disease, pulmonary complications, and various types of pneumonia.6
May cause depression of central nervous system, cloudy mental functioning, and slowed breathing to the point of respiratory failure.7
Heroin overdose may cause slow and shallow breathing, convulsions, coma, and possibly death.8
Users put themselves at risk for contracting HIV, hepatitis B and C, and other viruses.9

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1Office of National Drug Control Policy, Street Terms: Drugs and the Drug Trade.
2Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Summary of Findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, September 2001.
3Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Trafficking in the United States, September 2001.
4Ibid.
5U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Heroin, 2000.
6Ibid.
7U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Research Report: Heroin Abuse and Addiction, 1999.
8Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Descriptions: Heroin.
9Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Facts: Heroin.

 


MDMA (Ecstasy)

Street terms for MDMA/Ecstasy: XTC, go, X, Adam, hug drug1

What does Ecstasy look like?

Ecstasy is distributed in tablet form. Individual tablets are often imprinted with graphic designs or commercial logos, and typically contain 100 mg of MDMA.
How is Ecstasy used?

Ecstasy is usually ingested in tablet form, but can also be crushed and snorted, injected, or used in suppository form.
Who uses Ecstasy?

In 2000, more than 6.4 million people age 12 and older reported that they have used Ecstasy at least once in their lives.2
Ecstasy is popular among middle-class adolescents and young adults.
Ecstasy is sold primarily at legitimate nightclubs and bars, at underground nightclubs sometimes called "acid houses," or at all-night parties known as "raves."
How does Ecstasy get to the United States?

The vast majority of Ecstasy consumed domestically is produced in Europe.
A limited number of Ecstasy laboratories operate in the United States.
Law enforcement seized 17 clandestine Ecstasy laboratories in the United States in 2001 compared to 7 seized in 2000.3
How much does Ecstasy cost?

It costs as little as 25 to 50 cents to manufacture an Ecstasy tablet in Europe, but the street value of that same Ecstasy tablet can be as high as $40, with a tablet typically selling for between $20 and $30.4
What are some of the consequences of using Ecstasy?

In addition to chemical stimulation, the drug reportedly suppresses the need to eat, drink, or sleep.5
When taken at raves, where all-night dancing usually occurs, the drug often leads to severe dehydration and heat stroke in the user since it has the effect of "short-circuiting" the body's temperature signals to the brain.6
An Ecstasy overdose is characterized by a rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, faintness, muscle cramping, panic attacks, and, in more severe cases, loss of consciousness or seizures. One of the side effects of the drug is jaw muscle tension and teeth grinding. As a consequence, Ecstasy users will often suck on pacifiers to help relieve the tension.7
Ecstasy may cause hyperthermia, muscle breakdown, seizures, stroke, kidney and cardiovascular system failure, possible permanent damage to sections of brain critical to thought and memory, and death.8

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1Office of National Drug Control Policy, Street Terms: Drugs and the Drug Trade.
2Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Summary of Findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, September 2001.
3Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Trafficking in the United States, September 2001.
4Ibid.
5Drug Enforcement Administration, Club Drugs: An Update, September 2001.
6Ibid.
7Ibid.
8National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: MDMA (Ecstasy


DRUG USE IDENTIFICATION

Marijuana

It’s a Central Nervous System Depressant.

Physiological Response – Lowered Heart Rate, Lowered Respiration, Appear Drowsy, Lethargic

Eyes – Pupil Size near normal, however, the pupil response to light is very slow.  Also THC causes bloodshot eyes.

Other Effects – Hand eye coordination affected, impaired motor skills, and cannot judge speed, distance, or time.  Can cause panic attacks, and paranoia, and a user may feel threatened by authority figures.

Paraphernalia – Pipes, Cigarette Papers, Knives, and Scissors with scorched ends.

Street Names:  Weed, Pot, Grass, Green, Skunk

Use:  Recent survey showed 21% of teens used marijuana in the last 30 days.

Ecstasy

It’s a Central Nervous System Stimulant  (Hallucinogenic)

Physiological Response – Increased blood pressure, jaw clenching, teeth grinding, increased pulse rate, increased body temp, nausea, dehydration, anxiety, blurred vision, convulsions, sweating, difficulty concentrating (Ecstasy Hangover Syndrome).

Eyes – Pupils are dilated; pupil response to light is slow.

Drug paraphernalia – Baby Pacifiers, Lollypops, Toothbrushes, Feather Necklaces, Stuffed Animals, Vic Vapor Rub and filter masks, Spray Bottles, Water Bottles.

Can be violent to Persons in Authority – doctors, nurses, and police when hallucinating.

Street Names: E, X, EVA, Love Drug, Dance Drug, Everything Drug, XTC, E’s, Eckies, Adam, Hug Drug, or color of pill names after a fruit i.e. Blueberry, Strawberry etc…

Recent Study showed 12% of teens used ecstasy.


Cocaine

Central Nervous System Stimulant

Physiological Response – Quick Surge of Energy, Confusion, Impaired Judgment, Talkative, Excited, Irrational, constricted blood vessels, increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.

Eyes – Dilated Pupils, pupils respond slowly to light.

Paraphernalia – Needles, pipes, razor blades, small mirrors, spoons, tubes.

Street Names – Blow, Coke, White


LSD

Physiological Response – Hypertension, rapid heart rate, vomiting, salivation, anorexia, acute mental state, tremors, bizarre behavior, panic, hallucinations, dizziness.

Eyes – Pupil dilation, impaired perception of color, persistent and recurrent visual illusions, and halos around objects.

Paraphernalia – Blotter papers that look like cartoon, or video characters.

Street Names – Acid, cid, blue, pink, windowpane, sunshine, orange sunshine, blotter, microdots, paper.

Dangers – Violent or hazardous behavior, brain damage, death due to trauma that occurs during hallucinations.

Stage 1 – 0-60 minutes; lightheaded, twitching, dilation of pupils
Stage 2 – 30-60 minutes; visual and auditory sensory alterations, distortion of color.
State 3 – 2-12 hours; euphoria, mood swings, depression depersonalization.

Tweaking is the most dangerous time.  Person may harm themselves or others.  Keep lights low, keep your distance, and use a low calm voice.

Other Intoxicants

Cough Syrup – DXM can cause hallucinations
Nitrous Oxide (Whippets), Gasoline, Propane, Helium, Paint Remover, Rubber Cement
OxyContin – Pain Killer and Rohypnol – Sedative

* This is just a guide, no one specific element allows you to conclude someone has, or is using illegal, or legal intoxicants. *


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